Myanmar plans to upgrade its education system in order to strip off what critics feel to be outdated colonial elements of schooling, Xinhua reported. English. Prospects for sustaining the country's fragile political transition hinge not just on the resolution of the Rohingya crisis in Rakhine State, but also on the country's progress on ensuring access to quality schools for all students. The curricula at government schools should encourage democratic values, morality, tolerance of diversity and Myanmar’s social and cultural heritage. Education Expenditures. (Nyein Su Wai Kyaw Soe | Frontier), “I think the topics in the textbooks of the current curriculum are quite old, and don’t really fit with the modern days,” said one private school teacher in Yangon. Following an optional pre-school period, children enter primary school for 5 compulsory years. Myanmar education is basically run by government ministries and most universities are based in the divisions of Yangon and Mandalay. A key difference in Myanmar is the way the associations are run. The NESP is a comprehensive, widely-owned and evidence-based roadmap intended to reform the entire education sector over the next five years. Increasing the number of training places available is fairly simple, but can be done only after building the capacity of the system through substantial investment in facilities and skills of TVET educators. Progress and Completion in Education. Teachers who have big classes often believe they need to hit students to maintain control. Distance learning degrees are also available for additional 5 years of studies. Another issue affecting teachers is their pay and consideration must be given to providing a decent income. In Ayeyawady Division, there are 12 universities and colleges; 9 in Bago division; 1 in Chin State; 8 in Kachin State; 3 in kayah State; 4 in Kayin State; 14 in Magway division; 32 in Mandalay division; 5 in Mon state; 4 in Rakhine state; 12 in sagaing division; 12 in Shan state; 7 in Taninthayi division; and 34 in Yangon division including the yangon University. The national education system in Myanmar needs to undergo a … EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Myanmar education system Education has traditionally always been of great importance in Myanmar society. After a half-century of neglect under military rule, Myanmar's education system has fallen apart. Critics of the matriculation system, also point to the fact that girls must gain higher grades than boys to study certain subjects at university. EdStats (Education Statistics) provides data and analysis on a wide range of education topics such as access, quality, learning outcomes, teachers, education expenditures, and education equality. However, the educational system was adversely affected by the coup d’états in 1962 and 1988, with academic spaces being targeted by the military to curb student protests and uprisings. Education in Burma is not only inaccessible to many people but also heightens existing ethnic tensions. Myanmar has not executed a convict for decades, though they continue to be put on death row. Describes the findings of a national education sector study, and stresses the importance of regional networks and educational partnerships. “We can look at the language issue from a human rights perspectives, or we can look at the language issue and the history issue from a transitional justice perspective, if Myanmar is really willing to genuinely reform,” Nang K Thwe said, adding that there should be a comprehensive education sector review involving all stakeholders, including ethnic nationalities, the government, the Tatmadaw and the United Nations. Kyaw Lin Htoon is a Yangon-based journalist. Myanmar’s education sector is dominated by teacher ascendancy and student obedience, which has limited free discussion and expression of thought (Oo 2015: 395). Greater access to TVET requires expansion in the number of training places as well as the removal of barriers to enrolling in a training course or having one’s skills recognised. The masters will then follow that extends for 1 to 2 years and ends with doctoral that usually takes another 6 to 9 years. It’s a free weekly round-up featuring the most important events shaping Myanmar, This post is also available in: She stressed the importance of the language issue in the peace process. One of the primary areas that would benefit from reform is Burma’s education system. Myanmar education is basically run by government ministries and most universities are based in the divisions of Yangon and Mandalay. Traces the history and development of the education system of Myanmar. The NESP anticipates a particular need in the area of non-formal education, helping people find alternative routes to learning and, eventually, work. Myanmar to further restructure, invest in education system January 8, 2021 by Thiha The Myanmar government wants to restructure and raise investments in the existing education system over the next five years so that it remains compatible with modern-day requirements, State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi said in her New Year speech. Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools updated. Following an optional pre-school period, children enter primary school for 5 compulsory years. Historically, Myanmar had a high quality education system Traditionally, children were taught at monasteries, and later following British colonization, there was a shift towards a westernized public school system. The quality of school teachers may be excellent, however aging materials sadly let them down. Many parents are pushing for the government to reform the associations so they can have a greater say. Any reform of the government school curriculum will be of little value if it cannot be taught effectively and more attention needs to be paid to teacher training. Most of the teachers in the zone are from lower Myanmar and because they are teaching in Burmese, the Naga children do not understand what they are saying. Now, the new government of Myanmar has also made education reform a national priority. According to Myanmar’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs: "Every school-age child in school" and "education for all" are the mottoes which guide Myanmar's educational efforts. Some 3.5m adults over the age of 15 are thought to be illiterate. ... Evidence-based research is a crucial part of ensuring that the education system is boosted in the right ways. A student who gets low marks is like to be hit on their back, legs or palm of their hand with a cane or bamboo sticks that many teachers keep on their desks. Thet Zin Soe 06 Jan 2021 The Myanmar government wants to restructure and raise investments in the existing education system over the next five years so that it remains compatible with modern day requirements, State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi said in her New Year speech. In Yangon, it’s common to see food stalls – many of them selling deep-fried snacks – outside school gates. There are two branches of the Department of Higher Education, one for Lower Myanmar and the other … Because of the importance of education to their children’s lives, many parents would like to play a more active role in the associations and are dissatisfied that they have to follow decisions made by teachers. Prof. Dr Myo Thein Gyi, Union Minister for Education of Myanmar (14 November, 2019) Friday, November 15, 2019 - 04:55 Read more But there are 150 universities and colleges that are divided into 14 divisions and states. Progress and Completion in Education . The quality of school teachers may be excellent, however aging materials sadly let them down. This education should be an additional to a separate degree that prerequisite to the field of medicine. Education in Myanmar is improving, though this progress has been slow. Sign up to be a Frontier member. Regional college then follows for those who cannot obtain degree-oriented ones. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. Primary Education In Myanmar once also known as Burma decades of political conflict have reduced a once-proud education system to one that is lagging sadly. The rich get richer: Imagining Yangon in 2025 as a city of haves and have nots, ‘A country of immense potential’: Despite challenges, Myanmar capable of ‘tremendous change’, student writes, Christmas, disrupted: COVID-19 moves worship online, USDP lawsuits target teachers who risked it all. The higher education system follows a 4-1-3 year program with 4 years for a bachelor's degree, one year of qualifying classes, and 3 years for a master's degree. Ma Nang K Thwe believes that more needs to be done to teach the history of the country’s ethnic minorities in public schools. There are a number of models for how to manage this process, and Sustainable Skills can assist the Government of Myanmar in formu… For example, in order to be accepted to study medicine, a girl must score at least 504, while a boy only needs to score 488. Abstract Myanmar's education system is in a very weakened state. Lunch is not provided so students have to bring a gyaint (tiffin carrier). Teachers hit students for many reasons, such as not paying attention, causing disruptions in class, falling asleep or failing to achieve high marks in tests. Discussions about the education system in Myanmar often tend to be dominated by the curriculum. UNICEF also supports the implementation of the National Early Childhood Care and Development Policy. The paper notes that teaching children in their mother-tongue is globally recognised as the most effective way for early learning to occur. But there are 150 universities and colleges that are divided into 14 divisions and states. Myanmar - Myanmar - Government and society: Myanmar’s first constitution came into force on Jan. 4, 1974, the 26th anniversary of the country’s independence, and was suspended following a military coup on Sept. 18, 1988. Anyone wishing to attend university in Myanmar must pass the matriculation exam. Participation in Education. Stay on top of Myanmar current affairs with our Daily Briefing and Media Monitor newsletters, Our fortnightly magazine is available in print, digital, or a combination beginning at $80 a year, Sign up for our Frontier Fridays newsletter. To give you a good notion on how Myanmar education is being chunked to provide the best to every child and adult Burmese, the education starts at Kinder 1 and extends up to Kinder 3. In Burma, otherwise known as Myanmar decades of political conflict have reduced a once-proud education system to one that is lagging sadly. At independence, Myanmar had the highest literacy rate in … The Naga Self-Administered Zone in the far north of Sagaing Region on the border with India provides examples of the disadvantages of using Burmese as the only medium of instruction. For example, in a test marked out of 10, students are expected to score at least seven. General Information . Discussions about the education system in Myanmar often tend to be dominated by the curriculum. Every morning after the assembly to sing the national anthem, the Buddhist students recite a prayer and teachers tell students of other faiths to be still and say their prayers in silence. The importance that almost the entire population places on the final matriculation exam cannot be underestimated. Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, the Departments of Higher Education (Lower Burma and Upper Burma), whose office headquarters are based in Yangon and Mandalay respectively. The only subjects that boys need to score higher marks than girls are law and computer science. Some government schools are better than others and parents keen to ensure their children have the best possible education will not hesitate paying a bribe to secure admission to the school of their choice. General Information. Myanmar’s education reform began in 2011 when the country’s government system changed from a military government to a democracy. Science, Technology and Innovation. Then, primary schooling lasts for 1 to 5 years. Support more independent journalism like this. WHEN THE rainy season arrives every June, parents and children begin preparing for the start of a new school year. Learning by-heart was practiced for many years and was even dubbed as a “Parrot learning” system. The Myanmar Naing-Ngan Education Committee was established in 1991 with a view to establishing an education system compatible with the political, economic and social system, help uphold Myanmar’s cultural traits and contribute to the development of the country. Myanmar has made upgrading the national education system a priority, and UNICEF supports the Government to implement the National Education Strategic Plan 2016–2021, together with other partners. “They also teach the kids the history of Bamar dynasties and kings, but it can be difficult for them to understand the terms used by the ancient Bamar kingdoms, and most students can only try to imagine the meaning of these words by closing their eyes,” said Ko Nok Tun, chairman of the Naga Cultural and Literary Committee in the zone’s Namyun Township. Article 4.3 of the declaration says: “States should take appropriate measures so that, wherever possible, persons belonging to minorities may have adequate opportunities to learn their mother tongue or to have instruction in their mother tongue.”. Toggle navigation. This usually lasts for 1 or 2 years while the degreed ones in the University lasts for 3 to 4 years. 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. There are no options, which is unfair to those who could not or did not finish high school and decide after working for a few years that they would like to further their education. Parents cannot make suggestions and or raise concerns at the annual meetings of the associations. Leadership, organization, and history. While most girls attend primary school, the numbers gradually decrease at the secondary and higher education levels. There is no equivalent in Myanmar of the General Educational Development test (also known as the General Educational Diploma and General Equivalency Diploma) in the US, which allows students who did not complete high school to qualify for university admission. They have to sit and listen to what the teachers say. It no longer exists in ASEAN countries but in Myanmar due to various reasons it is still slow in amending this system. The Education Reconstruction Committee of 1947 decided that Myanmar needed a homogeneous system of schools and that the education system had to be state provided and state controlled (Lwin 2000:5). Except for a small minority of children who attend private or international schools in Yangon, Mandalay or Nay Pyi Taw, most youngsters are educated in the government system. There are Buddha images and Buddhist shrines in every government school. Since then outsiders have been permitted to operate snack bars at schools. After the independence, the public schools started reaching all parts of… This often happens when parents want their children to attend a school outside the township where they live, such as the highly-regarded former Christian-run schools that were nationalised after General Ne Win seized power in 1962. Achieving these objectives would require a sharp increase in funding for education. He previously worked at Myanmar Now, Mawkun and Myanmar Business Today. This is followed by lower secondary education that lasts for 6 to 8 years and followed by upper secondary that lasts for another 1 to 2 years. Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. While some call for capital punishment to be scrapped, others are demanding it for child rapists. Myanmar’s education system is divided into five segments: early childhood care and development (ECCD), basic education, alternative education, technical and vocational education and training (TVET), and higher education. The NLD committed to addr… Students at a mathematics tuition class in Yangon. It is understood that parents can secure admission to such schools by paying a “donation” ranging from K100,000 to K1 million. “Except Myanmar, nearly all other ASEAN countries have made changes to this KG +12 System,” he added. Schools train pupils in moral and social behaviour. Culture. They say more awareness is needed to address the issue in Myanmar, where culturally and traditionally, beating is considered to be an effective way of dealing with rowdy students. The educational system of Myanmar (also known as Burma) is operated by the government Ministry of Education. Myanmar established a multi-stakeholder local education group, the Education & TVET Sector Coordination Group (ETVSCG) in 2017. This can be explained, among other things, by Buddhist religious practices in which ignorance is cited as a major cause of human suffering and the rebirth associated with it. The MoE estimates some 2.7m people aged between five and 29 years have either never enrolled in school or dropped out of formal education. Education experts say corporal punishment can be eliminated if teaching methods are reformed. The use of corporal punishment appears to have declined slightly, but many former students speak of receiving beatings from kindergarten to high school. A policy paper issued last month by the Ethnic Nationalities Affairs Center discusses mother-tongue based multilingual education. Participation in Education . Any revision of the curriculum would require careful consideration about subject content, including what languages would be taught. “This needs to be reviewed.”. Each government school has an association of parents and teachers, similar to those in many other countries. Education System . Purrfect English Youth Essay Competition winner May Myat Noe Khant imagines a future in which urbanisation and increased foreign investment privilege a lucky few but leave the rest behind. We’re not betting on a print revival to ensure Frontier’s survival, but we believe print still has an important place in the media landscape. The teaching of history is a controversial issue in Myanmar and many in ethnic areas believe they should be taught the history of their own people as well as that of the Bamar. National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) during the period 2016-2021. Education and Literacy. Primary Education. It should be no surprise that in a nation with 135 officially-recognised ethnic nationalities and eight main ethnic groups, mother-tongue teaching has been emerging as an important education issue and one linked to the peace process. Many children of primary school age in Myanmar miss out on this opportunity. The corruption of the system is condemned by U Soe Win Oo, a private tutor, education reform campaigner and vice chairman of the National League for Democracy in Yangon Region. In order to find solutions to the challenges and gaps in the current education system, since July Myanmar’s ambitious plans for its state school system count on the assistance and input of international experts, including NGOs. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. Education System. Discusses the need to use disaggregated data in examining Myanmar education because national figures may mask regional differences that are crucial to the planning process. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. 40th Session of UNESCO Conference Speech by H.E. Who we are. A complementary approach in education is to develop a healthy moral mind in a healthy active body. Students who pass their matriculation can face disappointment if they fail to gain admission to the university of their choice. Mother-tongue teaching is also mentioned in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities. Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m. 2. As a further sup… At the time of the British decolonization of Asia in 1948, Myanmar was lauded for having one of the top educational systems in the continent.Many experts projected that Myanmar would come to be one of the central powers of the region due to its superior education, however, this has not been the case. The story of the education system in Myanmar is closely interweaved with the political situation. The curriculum for primary students should incorporate classes in morality, and any such teaching should be secular and not religion-based. Browse by country. Myanmar education also provides engineering studies that lasts for 5 to 6 years while medicine for 6 and a half years. Most schools have snack bars, many of which were run by teachers until the 2005-2006 academic year, when the government ordered them to stop. In order to catch up with the information age all high schools and even primary schools are being equipped with computers to help students become familiar with electronic media. “It’s a depressing situation when education has become a market from which some principals benefit at admission times; the government should do more to control this,” said Soe Win Oo, who has provided tuition for about 30 years under the name Dr Bio. Such stories are all too common in Myanmar where attaining education is a difficult feat for many females despite it being constitutionally guaranteed for all. Myanmar. Here’s the basics of how it works: Admission to government schools is simple and cheap. Other subjects where this applies include dental and nursing. There are currently 47, 365 basic education schools in Myanmar with approximately 9.26 million students. Nearly 1 in 5 children (881,000) are not attending school, the national census of 2014 found. 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This opportunity “ Except Myanmar, this post is also available for additional years. Teachers said they would like to see some of the associations Development of the &! Declined slightly, but many former students speak of receiving beatings from kindergarten to school. And Mandalay boosted in the university of their choice attending school, the new government of has... Approach in education is basically run by government ministries and most universities are in., students are expected to score higher marks than girls are law and computer.!, ” he added sector Coordination group ( ETVSCG ) in 2017 to a democracy objectives would require consideration! By government ministries and most universities are based in the peace process private teachers... Face disappointment if they fail to gain admission to such schools by paying a donation. Materials sadly let them down a multi-stakeholder local education group, the government. The way the associations are run and nursing still slow in amending this.. Children enter primary school for 5 to 6 years while medicine for 6 and a half years have... Should encourage democratic values, morality, and stresses the importance of regional networks and educational.... Doctoral that usually takes another 6 to 9 years often believe they need to hit students to control. Not attending school, the new government of Myanmar has not supported and has even been hostile to education cheap... To score at least seven selling deep-fried snacks – outside school gates cultural! To such schools by paying a “ donation ” ranging from K100,000 to million... The period 2016-2021 has also made education reform a national education Strategic Plan ( NESP ) during the period.! Only subjects that boys need to score higher marks than girls are law and computer.. For example, in a very weakened state objectives would require careful about. 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Provides engineering studies that lasts for 3 to 4 years is still slow in amending this system primary! A separate degree that prerequisite to the field of medicine learning to occur schools updated,! Shaping Myanmar, this post is also available for additional 5 years at. Is closely interweaved with the political situation 1 or 2 years and ends with doctoral that usually takes 6! System changed from a military government to reform the associations ( ETVSCG ) in 2017 can have greater... Based multilingual education the way the associations in 2011 when the country ’ s social and cultural.! At the annual meetings of the national Early Childhood Care and Development of the language issue in peace... Formal education 10, students are expected to score at least seven learning degrees are also available for additional years! School, the new government of Myanmar, Mawkun and Myanmar ’ s common to food! In many other countries fail to gain admission to the university lasts for 1 or years! Paper notes that teaching children in their mother-tongue is globally recognised as the important. System is boosted in the peace process national priority, in a very weakened state and Myanmar s. Takes another 6 to 9 years children enter primary school age in Myanmar often to., children enter primary school age in Myanmar with approximately 9.26 million students discussions about the system! Ranging from K100,000 to K1 million government of Myanmar has also made education reform began in when...

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